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Sunday, September 30, 2012

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Are you stupid? It was tough 22 years ago; stagnation, inflation, and infringement on huma rights; you catch up too late...France is doomed; sold, screwed big time. You kidding me! Dr Olga M Lazin
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Europe needs to look at sharing more of Greece’s pain | The A-List

Dsipelling the financial pain, and spillover of disaster: Europe needs to look at sharing more of Greece’s pain | The A-List:

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Bo faces threat of death penalty

Bo Xilai©Getty
China’s rulers have put on a forceful show of unity after the country’s biggest political scandal in decades, kicking Bo Xilai out of the Communist party and making myriad accusations that could lead to the death penalty for the disgraced one-time high-flying politician.
The announcement that the former party secretary of Chongqing has been accused of taking bribes, improper sexual relations with multiple women and other unspecified crimes comes six months after he was purged following revelations that his wife had murdered a British businessman.

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ON THIS STORY

Ths list was unexpectedly extensive. Some observers had thought that the government might hand Mr Bo only a light punishment because he was one of the country’s most popular politicians and his father was a revered revolutionary leader.
The Communist party is now expected to close its most damaging crisis since the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre before the critical congress at which power will be transferred to China’s next generation of leaders. The Xinhua news agency announced on Friday that this would be held on November 8.
Mr Bo’s populist streak and penchant for Maoist nostalgia had made him a threat to the cautious, technocratic, consensus-driven style of leadership that has been at the heart of China’s political model since the 1990s.
His open challenge for a top national position came undone in a dramatic blaze this year when his Chongqing police chief fled to a US consulate alleging that Mr Bo had covered up the murder of Neil Heywood orchestrated by his wife Gu Kailai.
Xinhua said the congress would start on November 8, just two days after the US presidential election. Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang are all but certain to take over from Hu Jintao, president, and Wen Jiabao, premier, who have governed since 2002.
Cheng Li, an expert on Chinese politics at the Brookings Institute in Washington, said the accusations against Mr Bo were “very, very serious” and that Mr Bo might receive the same punishment as his wife: a death sentence commuted to life in prison.
The Bo case has cast a long shadow over the succession plans. Party insiders said officials wanted to reach a consensus about how to deal with Mr Bo before proceeding with the congress, hence the delay in announcing a date.

New FT ebook

The Bo Xilai Scandal
Download for your Kindle or iPad Jamil Anderlini’s gripping account of the rise and fall of Bo Xilai, updated as an ebook and sold on Amazon and Apple for the equivalent of just £0.99
Gu has already been found guilty ofmurdering Neil Heywood, the UK businessman. But Mr Bo has not been seen or heard from since April when he was accused of violating party discipline.
Xinhua said that in the aftermath of the Heywood murder, Mr Bo had “abused his powers of office and committed serious errors and bears a major responsibility”.
Beyond that case, Xinhua said there was evidence that Mr Bo had consistently violated party discipline over the years, extending back to his time as chief of the north-eastern city of Dalian and as the country’s commerce minister.
“Bo Xilai’s actions had grave repercussions, and massively damaged the reputation of the party and the state,” it said.
In highlighting a series of crimes throughout his career, the Xinhua statement suggests that he will be dealt with harshly and could even face the death penalty.
Next to the drama of Mr Bo’s case, the party congress in November will appear a staid affair, with speeches full of generalities and no outward indications of any disagreements. But it will be extremely important, ushering in Mr Xi and Mr Li as China’s two most powerful leaders for the next decade.

Interactive graphic

Chinese Leadership
Profiles of leading contenders to be appointed to the standing committee, the core of the Communist party, or the 25-member politburo
The congress will also introduce the newpolitburo standing committee, which in effect is China’s top ruling body. Apart from Mr Xi and Mr Li, the composition and even the size of the standing committee remain in doubt.
For the past decade, China has governed with a nine-member standing committee, but there has been talk that it could be pared back to seven to ease decision making. Even if the politburo were shrunk, a range of party officials without seats would still wield great influence.
The outgoing Mr Hu, for example, could retain chairmanship of the central military commission for several years, making him China’s commander-in-chief.
Mr Hu is also believed to be trying to stock the politburo with his acolytes, as previous leaders have done, to retain informal sway.
Whatever the precise shape of China’s new leadership, the government will have a lengthening list of contentious economic, political and social issues on its hands.
The economy is on track for its slowest growth in more than a decade this year and there are signs that it could deteriorate further next year.
Internationally, China’s development has benefited from a relatively benign regional environment for decades, but a clash with Japan over disputed islands in recent weeks and increasing animosity with neighbours in south-east Asia could scupper that.
At home, a more prosperous and educated population is clamouring to make its voice heard, whether protesting over polluting factories, demanding a say over land transfers or simply using social media to vent frustrations.
Additional reporting by Leslie Hook
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  1. ReportTruer | October 1 2:02am | Permalink
    @Windy

    Every foreign media has been saying about the highly secretive Chinese politics, more so are the private lives of the Chinese leaders. And yet, how could a nobody poster like you could come into the knowledge of the "Da Fu Hao". If the Chinese leaders are as corrupted as what the many China haters are saying and if they are as secretive as what the western media are saying, than those Chinese leaders won't be meeting girls in a "restaurant" but would have had the girls brought to their secretive apartments.

    Next time, try to be smarter in making imbecilic lies.
  2. Reportthegreatkonga | September 29 1:52pm | Permalink
    One always hears this word, "technocratic", when referring to the Chinese leadership. Why? They are not in the least technocratic, the entire CCP is based on close relations and shared interests among different ideologues. Several academic studies have revealed no relation between job performance and promotion within party ranks. Really, FT! You should get it together.
  3. ReportJames UK | September 29 12:48pm | Permalink
    @ ReportWidmerpool,
    Yes, I have been to Beijing 3 or 4 times in last 10 years, Beijing tube is even worse than the City line in London in rush hours. I just needed to take it once for early meeting though fortunately! Know you are China hater, I am Japan hater.

    will not comment here, the same weird people every time, boring!
  4. ReportWidmerpool | September 29 11:55am | Permalink
    The China Daily to its etrenal credit has a very full account of ex Comrade BO's downfall; whilst covering the same stuff as the FT it also says there is evidence that he has been involved in "other crimes" and this will be handed over to "judicial organs for handling"
    Good news for China which is hopefully now entering a new era where the rule of law is becoming paramount and more openess and transparency will prevail over time.
    The Chinese are to be congratulated now for not sweeping the BO disgrace under the carpet.

ELITELORE FACTORS: How To create Equality: Google+ Hangouts

Human Behaviour; 2 videos are presented:

Class Presentation at UCLA
Google+ Hangouts:

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Saturday, September 29, 2012

Distance Learning Education Standards; Academic Coaches; arello.org

For Leora : Distance Education is the Way of the Future:


Great link: arello.org: " Distance Education Standards Manual This comprehensive resource is based upon the latest research in distance education and examines the essential components in quality design and delivery of distance education courses. This resource is a "must have" for anyone considering developing or offering distance education courses in any number of delivery formats, including Internet, videotape, satellite or computer-based training. Price: $49.00"




Learn more about NSD:

This website has been designed to serve as a companion piece to Thomas L. Russell's book, "The No Significant Difference Phenomenon" (2001, IDECC, fifth edition). Mr. Russell's book is a fully indexed, comprehensive research bibliography of 355 research reports, summaries and papers that document no significant differences (NSD) in student outcomes between alternate modes of education delivery, with a foreword by Dr. Richard E. Clark. Previous editions of the book were provided electronically; the fifth edition is the first to be made available in print from IDECC (The International Distance Education Certification Center).
The primary purpose of the NSD website is to expand on the offerings from the book by providing access to appropriate studies published or discovered after the release of the book. In addition to studies that document no significant difference (NSD), the website includes studies which do document significant differences (SD) in student outcomes based on the mode of education delivery.



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Distance Education Standards Manual

This comprehensive resource is based upon the latest research in distance education and examines the essential components in quality design and delivery of distance education courses. This resource is a "must have" for anyone considering developing or offering distance education courses in any number of delivery formats, including Internet, videotape, satellite or computer-based training.

Price: $49.00

Thursday, September 27, 2012

Reminder about your invitation from Dr Olga Lazin

 
 
 
LinkedIn
 
This is a reminder that on September 15, Dr Olga Lazin sent you an invitation to become part of their professional network at LinkedIn.
 
 
 
 
On September 15, Dr Olga Lazin wrote:

> To: [magdalenalazin.gastion@blogger.com]
> From: Dr Olga Lazin [olazin@ucla.edu]
> Subject: Invitation to connect on LinkedIn

> I'd like to add you to my professional network on LinkedIn.
>
> - Dr Olga
 
 
 
 
 
You are receiving Reminder emails for pending invitations. Unsubscribe.
© 2012 LinkedIn Corporation. 2029 Stierlin Ct, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA.
 

Tuesday, September 25, 2012

Fratii Petreus - Doamne la dusmanii mei - YouTube

My all time favorite bandFratii Petreus - Doamne la dusmanii mei - YouTube: ""





&

O ZIS MAMA CATA MINE:

http://youtu.be/4p9tZYRdeeE

'via Blog this' da-le bani, da-le de toate dale D-ne boala-n cioante; si la finu’ casii foc! da-le bani , dale tihneal si la virful casii para (de foc) dusmanii de-ar avea rind ar face moara de vint si m-ar macina pa rind, mai sai, lai lai! dusmanii de-ar ave vreme catra mine-ar taie lemne! ai, ai dale tot ca eu am frati si surori, mai , sai , lai lai da-le cutreala in grumaz ca eu am surori si frati ca eu am frati si surori si nu m-or lasa sa mor, sa, lai , la! la dusmani le pare bine cand am cite-o suparare nu le para ashe de bine ca si lor rindu’ le vine! B. A ZIS MAMA CATA MINE: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZJ7f9BCCQU&feature=relmfu Contact ADEPT; alex spataru The ADEPT Group, Inc. 1401 Westwood Blvd. Ste. 260; Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA Phone: (310) 478-3456; Fax: (310) 478-6335; E-mail:adept@adeptgroup.net Full-service self-publishing Keep 100% of your rights and 100% of your author royalties First name: * Email address: * Confirm email: * Book Status: * * required Age and privacy policy 1. Keep 100% of your rights The intellectual property and copyright of your book is very valuable. You should always retain all your rights. The very first sentence of our contract states: “Author retains 100% of the rights and copyright licenses to the manuscript and all other materials submitted to Outskirts Press, Inc.” 2. Keep 100% of your royalties Make more money by setting your own pricing! Only with Outskirts Press can you set your own retail price, author discount, and Price Plan. You receive 100% of your author royalties. 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Monday, September 24, 2012

OLga's DROID LG4, Accessories

I Need the USB to download pics and flics I took, messages for Nico and Elena in Italy, and Maris daniela in portugal, HUNGARY;

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Marea imparteala. Cum se stabilesc candidaturile eligibile la parlamentare si de ce politicenii isi muta candidaturile in alte colegii
de Luminita Pirvu     HotNews.ro
Duminică, 23 septembrie 2012, 23:02 Actualitate | Politic

  Negocierile interne pe distribuirea candidaturilor la alegerile din toamna sunt in plina desfasurare in USL si ARD, dar ce se negociaza si mai ales, de ce ar fi ceva de negociat cand toate partidele au stabilit ca principiu ca actualii parlamentari isi pastreaza colegiul castigat in 2009.  Exista de pilda situatia in care lideri USL si PDL vor să candideze la alegerile parlamentare în colegii noi dupa ce in zonele in care erau alesi partidele lor au pierdut alegerile. Mutarile politicienilor au in vedere mai multe variabile deoarece legea electorala in baza carora s-au desfasurat alegerile din 2008 a produs deja surprize, astfel ca politicieni care au iesit pe locul unu in colegiu au ratat in final Parlamentul, in schimb au intat politicieni de pe locul doi sau trei. 
De exemplu, Crin Antonescu, care a intrat in Parlament in 2008 de pe locul doi, intentioneaza sa-si mute candidatura de la sectorul 1 condus de adverarul sau intern din PNL, Andrei Chiliman, la sectorul 6 , unde primar este apropiatul sau Rares Manescu. La PDL , Elena Udrea si Vasile Blaga intentioneaza sa renunte la Bucuresti si sa intre in cursa electorala in colegii din Neamt respectiv Timis.
Cum se stabilesc colegiile eligibile si cum liderii politici si parlamentarii isi asigura sansele pentru a obtine noi mandate? Primul criteriu luat in calcul pentru o candidatura cu sanse mari de castig este procentul in sondaje al partidului sau aliantei obtinut in judetul si implicit in colegiul respectiv.

Primarii si presedintii de consilii judetene devin principalii vectori electorali.Alegerea colegiului se face in functie de numarul de primari pe care ii detine partidul in zona in care este delimitat colegiu. " Votul politic din alegerile locale este primul criteriu de a alegea colegiile eligibile. Primarii si presedintii de Consilii Judetene alesi in functie scot oamenii la vot si detin o parte din cheia succesului de a fi ales ca parlamentar", au explicat surse politice pentru HotNews.ro. 

De precizat este ca, potrivit datelor oficiale ale Biroului Electoral Central, USL  a obtinut un scor la alegerile locale de 88% din mandatele de preşedinte de CJ, urmat de UDMR cu 4,87% si PDL cu 2, 43%. Biroul Electoral Central a anunţat că USL a câştigat, în urma alegerilor cele mai multe mandate de primar atribuite, respectiv 41,57% , fiind urmată de PDL – 15,66%. 
Pierzi la vot, dar castigi la redistribuire

O a doua componeta este cea tehnica si se bazeaza pe legea 35/2008 privind alegerea parlamentarilor. Mai exact, modul cum sunt redistribuite mandatele castigatoare joaca un rol esential. Potrivit legii din 2008, pentru a obţine un mandat de parlamentar, un candidat trebuie în primul rând să cumuleze 50% plus unu din totalul opţiunilor de vot exprimate în respectivul colegiu. Următorul pas al sistemului de vot constă înredistribuirea mandatelor în colegiile unde au existat candidaţi ce au obţinut majoritatea insa aceasta redistribuire se face prin calcularea numărului de voturi pe care un partid  îl obţine la nivel judeţean şi naţional.

Aici conteaza cum sunt organizate si trasate colegiile. Legea privind alegerea deputatilor si senatorilor prevede ca un colegiu de deputat cuprinde aproximativ 70 000 de locuitori iar cel de senator aproxmatv 160 000 de locuitori. Tot legea perevede ca diferenta  dintre cel mai mare şi cel mai mic colegiu nu poate fi mai mare de 30%. 

Cand Guvernul a trasat colegiile in 2008 s-a folosit de aceasta prevedere din lege si a trasat inegal colegiile. Astfel in prezent un colegiu de deputat variaza intre 50.000 si 90.000 de locuitori iar un colegiu de senator poate cuprinde intre 112 000 -208 000 de cetateni. Cu alte cuvinte, exista colegii mai mici si mai mari, diferenta fiind de 30% intre ele. 

Componenta tehnica pe care mizeaza politicienii cand isi aleg locurile in care se candideze tine strict de redistribuirea mandatele si de marimea colegiului. De exemplu, in cadrul USL, miza unui candidat este sa participe la alegeri intr-un colegiu mai mic unde are primari alesi in functie . Astfel, se bazeaza pe scorul mare al USL si are, in concluzie,i sanse foarte mari sa iasa castigator cu 50+1 din voturi pentru a nu intra la redistribuire. 

De partea celalta, democrat liberalii la nivel national au castigat putine primarii si nu beneficiaza in colegii de sprijinul local. In acest caz democrat liberalii isi calculeaza candidaturile eligibile pe colegii mari unde au sanse la redistribuire. Mai exact, un colegiu mare detine si un numar de voturi mai mare. Daca persoana respectiva pierde alegerile in colegiu are sanse sa obtina un mandat in momentul in care se face redistribuirea in functie de numarul de voturi obtinute.
Reducem sau marim numarului de parlamentari?

Totodata atat USL cat si PDL au facut simulari pe legea alegerii parlamentarilor. Conform acestor simulari, numarul de mandate este posibil sa creasca intre 40 si 100. Practic, de la 471 de mandate parlamentare inregsitrate in 2008 locurile din Parlamnet s-ar putea suplimenta in functie de rezultatul alegerilor si redistribuirea mandatelor. Cu alte cuvinte, referendumul din 2009 privind reducerea numarului de parlamentari la 300 nu doar ca nu va fi respectat, insa numarul alesilor are toate sansele sa creasca substantial. 

Potrivit legii 35/2008, în prima etapa, intră direct în Parlament candidaţii care obţin peste 50% din voturi, în colegiile lor. Cea de-a doua etapa prevede ca fiecare partid are dreptul la un număr de locuri direct proporţional cu voturile obţinute.Dacă un partid ia peste 50% în toate colegiile dintr-un judeţ sau în mai multe colegii legea prevede prin redistribuire atribuirea unor locuri suplimentare şi unor candidaţi ai altor partide. 

De exemplu, in Bucuresti sunt 28 de colegii de deputati. Teoretic, daca USL care este cotat la peste 50% in preferintele electoratului obtine 20 mandate in prima instanta , PDL 5 mandate, PPDD 3 mandate. La redistribuire USL nu intra. Chiar daca mandatele au fost ocupate in cele 28 de colegii, potrivit legii ,PDL si PPDD mai pot obtine prin redistribuire noi mandate . 

In 2008 a existat un  astfel de caz, în judeţul Arad. PDL a castigat 5 mandate de deputati din cele 8 exsitente in judet. BEJ Arad a stabilit in urma redistribuiriii prin lege ca PSD, PNL şi UDMR au dreptul la cate unul ceea ce a avut ca efect „suplimentarea" cu inca un mandat. Practic in Arad au fost alesi 8 parlamentari pe 7 colegii.



Citeste doar ceea ce merita. Urmareste-ne si pe Facebook.




 

Agrocom France, radacina proiectelor tale

Arhitect peisagist, proiecte 2D/3D, plante ornamentale. Universul dvs exterior modelat cu bun gust.
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adaugare comentariu 
[

9 comentarii
+3 (3 voturi)    
numar de parlamentari (Duminică, 23 septembrie 2012, 23:30)
vasdeb [utilizator]
dupa atata circ si indignare la cel mai profund si indignat nivel al guvernantilor, unde a ramas numarul REAL de alegatori romani, respectiv numarul corect de parlamentari dupa reprezentativitatea legala? Nici o vorba de nicaieri, un proiect al d-lui Dusa se pare de forma in parlament, cei 300 votati printr-un referendum ignorat din interes personal... vorba romaneasca "Interesul poarta fesul."
raspunde trimite
o 0 (0 voturi)    
candidaturi dupa domiciliu (Luni, 24 septembrie 2012, 10:55)
break_noon [utilizator] i-a raspuns luivasdeb
Daca tot avem colegii electorale, de ce nu se candideaza dupa domiciliu stabil, care trebuie sa fie cu vechime, macar 4-5 ani.
Acum toti se muta dintr-o zona in alta, unde stiu ei ca au suport la partid, chiar daca apoi nu prea dau ei pe acolo, sa se consulte cu propriu electorat, pe care cica il reprezinta.
raspunde trimite
0 (0 voturi)    
pana la urma... (Luni, 24 septembrie 2012, 1:20)
niktig [utilizator]
(null)
raspunde trimite
+1 (1 vot)    
Despre redistribuire! (Luni, 24 septembrie 2012, 2:06)
Dan_Dumitrescu [utilizator]
Termenul de redistribuire este utilizat gresit, la fel ca acum 4 ani. Dupa ce se stabilesc partidele ce au depasit pragul electoral, in urma unui calcul la nivel national se stabileste un numar de mandate cuvenite fiecarui partid, PROPORTIONAL cu numarul de voturi obtinute. In urmatoarea etapa se stabileste la nivelul fiecarei circumscriptii electorale numarul de mandate cuvenit fiecarui partid. 

Pana la acest moment proportionalitatea intre numarul de voturi obtinute si numarul de mandate se pastreaza.

Urmatoarea etapa se desfasoara la nivelul FIECAREI circumscriptii electorale si are ca rezultat stabilirea CANDIDATILOR care au castigat mandate de parlamentar. In aceasta etapa apare suplimentarea numarului de mandate atunci cand un partid castiga cu 50%+1 MAI MULTE MANDATE decat cele cuvenite in mod PROPORTIONAL.
raspunde trimite
o 0 (0 voturi)    
completare... (Luni, 24 septembrie 2012, 9:42)

310-633-3676

DROID 4 by MOTOROLA


Eugène Ionesco
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia’  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eug%C3%A8ne_Ionesco’ A primer is a first textbook for teaching of reading, such as an alphabet book or basal reader. The word also is used more broadly to refer to any book that presents the most basic elements of a subject.
The Latin Enschedé Abecedarium of the late 15th century, translated into English as the Salisbury Prymer, has been identified as the earliest example of a printed primer. It presented the alphabet and several Catholic prayers. [1]
Other historical examples of primers for children include The New England Primer (1680s) and McGuffey Readers(1836) in the US, and Bala Potam (Lessons for Children, 1850 & 1851) by Arumuka Navalar in Sri Lanka.
[edit]See also
Hornbook
Primary education
Grammarians' War
[edit]References
1. ^ A Famous Book -- "The New England Primer", The New York Times, November 14, 1897



Eugène Ionesco

Born 26 November 1909
Slatina, Romania
Died 28 March 1994 (aged 84)
Paris, France
Occupation Playwright, dramatist
Nationality Romanian, French
Period (1931–1994)
Genres Theatre
Literary movement Avant-Garde, Theatre of the Absurd
Eugène Ionesco (born Eugen Ionescu, Romanian pronunciation: [e.uˈd͡ʒen i.oˈnesku]; 26 November 1909 – 28 March 1994) was a Romanian andFrench playwright and dramatist, and one of the foremost playwrights of the Theatre of the Absurd. Beyond ridiculing the most banal situations, Ionesco's plays depict in a tangible way the solitude and insignificance of human existence.
Contents
  [hide] 
1 Biography
2 Ionesco the author
o 2.1 Writing in Romania
o 2.2 The origins of his first play
o 2.3 Early plays
o 2.4 The full-length plays
o 2.5 Later works
o 2.6 Theoretical writings
o 2.7 Literary context
3 References
4 Further reading
5 External links
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Ionesco was born in Slatina, Romania, to a Romanian father of theOrthodox religion and a mother of French and Greek-Romanian heritage, whose religion was Protestant (the religion into which her father was born and to which her originally Greek Orthodox mother had converted).[1]Eugène himself was baptized into the Romanian Orthodox religion. Many sources cite his birthdate as 1912, this error being due to vanity on the part of Ionesco himself.[2]
He spent most of his childhood in France and, while there, had an experience he claimed affected his perception of the world more significantly than any other. As Deborah B. Gaensbauer describes inEugene Ionesco Revisited, "Walking in summer sunshine in a white-washed provincial village under an intense blue sky, [Ionesco] was profoundly altered by the light."[3] He was struck very suddenly with a feeling of intense luminosity, the feeling of floating off the ground and an overwhelming feeling of well-being. When he "floated" back to the ground and the "light" left him, he saw that the real world in comparison was full of decay, corruption and meaningless repetitive action. This also coincided with the revelation that death takes everyone in the end.[4] Much of his later work, reflecting this new perception, demonstrates a disgust for the tangible world, a distrust of communication, and the subtle sense that a better world lies just beyond our reach. Echoes of this experience can also be seen in references and themes in many of his important works: characters pining for an unattainable "city of lights" (The Killer, The Chairs) or perceiving a world beyond (A Stroll in the Air); characters granted the ability to fly (A Stroll in the Air, Amédée); the banality of the world which often leads to depression (the Bérenger character); ecstatic revelations of beauty within a pessimistic framework (Amédée, The Chairs, the Bérenger character); and the inevitability of death (Exit the King).


Ionesco crossing the Atlantic.
He returned to Romania with his father and mother in 1925 after his parents divorced. There he attended Saint Sava National College, after which he studiedFrench Literature at the University of Bucharest from 1928 to 1933 and qualified as a teacher of French. While there he met Emil Cioran and Mircea Eliade, and the three became lifelong friends.
In 1936 Ionesco married Rodica Burileanu. Together they had one daughter for whom he wrote a number of unconventional children's stories. He and his family returned to France in 1938 for him to complete his doctoral thesis. Caught by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, he returned to Romania, but soon changed his mind and, with the help of friends, obtained travel documents which allowed him to return to France in 1942, where he remained during the rest of the war, living inMarseille before moving with his family to Paris after its liberation.
Ionesco was made a member of the Académie française in 1970.[5] He also received numerous awards including Tours Festival Prize for film, 1959; Prix Italia, 1963; Society of Authors Theatre Prize, 1966; Grand Prix National for theatre, 1969; Monaco Grand Prix, 1969; Austrian State Prize for European Literature, 1970;Jerusalem Prize, 1973; and honorary Doctoral Degrees from New York University and the Universities of Leuven,Warwick and Tel Aviv. Eugène Ionesco died at age 84 on 28 March 1994 and is buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris.
[edit]Ionesco the author


Ionesco's grave inMontparnasse cemetery, Paris. The inscription translates: Pray to the I don't-know-who: Jesus Christ, I hope
[edit]Writing in Romania
Though best known as a playwright, plays were not his first chosen medium. He started writing poetry and criticism, publishing in several Romanian journals. Two early writings of note are Nu, a book criticizing many other writers, including prominent Romanian poets, and Hugoliade, or, The grotesque and tragic life of Victor Hugo a satirical biography mocking Victor Hugo's status as a great figure in French literature. The Hugoliade includes exaggerated retellings of the most scandalous episodes in Hugo's life and contains prototypes for many of Ionesco's later themes: the ridiculous authoritarian character, the false worship of language.
[edit]The origins of his first play
Like Samuel Beckett, Ionesco began his theatre career late: he did not write his first play until 1948 (La Cantatrice chauve, first performed in 1950 with the English titleThe Bald Soprano). At the age of 40 he decided to learn English using the Assimilmethod, conscientiously copying whole sentences in order to memorize them. Re-reading them, he began to feel that he was not learning English, rather he was discovering some astonishing truths such as the fact that there are seven days in a week, that the ceiling is up and the floor is down; things which he already knew, but which suddenly struck him as being as stupefying as they were indisputably true.[6]
This feeling only intensified with the introduction in later lessons of the characters known as "Mr. and Mrs. Smith". To his astonishment, Mrs. Smith informed her husband that they had several children, that they lived in the vicinity of London, that their name was Smith, that Mr. Smith was a clerk, and that they had a servant, Mary, who was English like themselves. What was remarkable about Mrs. Smith, he thought, was her eminently methodical procedure in her quest for truth. For Ionesco, the clichés and truisms of the conversation primer disintegrated into wild caricature and parody with language itself disintegrating into disjointed fragments of words. Ionesco set about translating this experience into a play, La Cantatrice Chauve, which was performed for the first time in 1950 under the direction of Nicolas Bataille. It was far from a success and went unnoticed until a few established writers and critics, among them Jean Anouilh andRaymond Queneau, championed the play.
[edit]Early plays
Ionesco's earliest works, and his most innovative, were one-act nonsense plays: La Cantatrice chauve (1950), La Leçontranslated as The Lesson (1951), Les Chaises translated as The Chairs (1952), and Jacques ou la soumissiontranslated as Jack, or The Submission (1955). These absurdist sketches, to which he gave such descriptions as "anti-play" (anti-pièce in French) express modern feelings of alienation and the impossibility and futility of communication withsurreal comic force, parodying the conformism of the bourgeoisie and conventional theatrical forms. In them Ionesco rejects a conventional story-line as their basis, instead taking their dramatic structure from accelerating rhythms and/or cyclical repetitions. He disregards psychology and coherent dialogue, thereby depicting a dehumanized world with mechanical, puppet-like characters who speak in non-sequiturs. Language becomes rarefied, with words and material objects gaining a life of their own, increasingly overwhelming the characters and creating a sense of menace.
[edit]The full-length plays
With Tueur sans gages translated as The Killer (1959; his second full-length play, the first being Amédée, ou Comment s'en débarrasser in 1954), Ionesco began to explore more sustained dramatic situations featuring more humanized characters. Notably this includes Bérenger, a central character in a number of Ionesco's plays, the last of which is Le Piéton de l'air translated as A Stroll in the Air.
Bérenger is a semi-autobiographical figure expressing Ionesco's wonderment and anguish at the strangeness of reality. He is comically naïve, engaging the audience's sympathy. In The Killer he encounters death in the figure of a serial killer. In Rhinocéros he watches his friends turning into rhinoceroses one by one until he alone stands unchanged against this mass movement. It is in this play that Ionesco most forcefully expresses his horror of ideological conformism, inspired by the rise of the fascist Iron Guard in Romania in the 1930s. Le Roi se meurt translated as Exit the King (1962) shows him as King Bérenger 1st, an everyman figure who struggles to come to terms with his own death.
[edit]Later works
Ionesco's later work has generally received less attention. This includes La Soif et la faim translated as Hunger and Thirst (1966), Jeux de massacre (1971), Macbett (1972, a free adaptation of Shakespeare's Macbeth) and Ce formidable bordel (1973).
Ionesco also wrote his only novel, The Hermit, during this later period. It was first published in 1975.
Apart from the libretto for the opera Maximilien Kolbe (music by Dominique Probst) which has been performed in five countries, filmed for television and recorded for release on CD, Ionesco did not write for the stage after Voyage chez les morts in 1981. However, La Cantatrice chauve is still playing at the Théâtre de la Huchette today, having moved there in 1952.
[edit]Theoretical writings
Like Shaw and Brecht, Ionesco also contributed to the theatre with his theoretical writings (Wellwarth, 33). Ionesco wrote mainly in attempts to correct critics who he felt misunderstood his work and therefore wrongly influenced his audience. In doing so, Ionesco articulated ways in which he thought contemporary theatre should be reformed (Wellwarth, 33). Notes and Counter Notes is a collection of Ionesco's writings, including musings on why he chose to write for the theatre and direct responses to his contemporary critics.
In the first section, titled "Experience of the Theatre", Ionesco claimed to have hated going to the theatre as a child because it gave him "no pleasure or feeling of participation" (Ionesco, 15). He wrote that the problem with realistic theatre is that it is less interesting than theatre that invokes an "imaginative truth", which he found to be much more interesting and freeing than the "narrow" truth presented by strict realism (Ionesco, 15). He claimed that "drama that relies on simple effects is not necessarily drama simplified" (Ionesco, 28). Notes and Counter Notes also reprints a heated war of words between Ionesco and Kenneth Tynan based on Ionesco's above stated beliefs and Ionesco's hatred for Brecht and Brechtian theatre.
[edit]Literary context
Ionesco is often considered a writer of the Theatre of the Absurd. This is a label originally given to him by Martin Esslinin his book of the same name, placing Ionesco alongside such contemporary writers as Samuel Beckett, Jean Genet, and Arthur Adamov. Esslin called them "absurd" based on Albert Camus' concept of the absurd, claiming that Beckett and Ionesco better captured the meaninglessness of existence in their plays than in work by Camus or Sartre. Because of this loose association, Ionesco is often mislabeled an existentialist. Ionesco claimed in Notes and Counter Notes that he was not an existentialist and often criticized existentialist figurehead Jean-Paul Sartre. Although Ionesco knew Beckett and honored his work, the French group of playwrights was far from an organized movement.
Ionesco on the metaphysics of death in Through Parisian Eyes: Reflections on Contemporary French Arts and Cultureby Melinda Camber Porter: "Death is our main problem and all others are less important. It is the wall and the limit. It is the only inescapable alienation; it gives us a sense of our limits. But the ignorance of ourselves and of others to which we are condemned is just as worrying. In the final analysis, we don't know what we're doing. Nevertheless, in all my work there is an element of hope and an appeal to others."
Ionesco claimed instead an affinity for ’Pataphysics and its creator Alfred Jarry. He was also a great admirer of theDadaists and Surrealists, especially his fellow countryman Tristan Tzara. Ionesco became friends with the founder ofSurrealism, André Breton, whom he revered. In Present Past, Past Present, Ionesco wrote, "Breton taught us to destroy the walls of the real that separate us from reality, to participate in being so as to live as if it were the first day of creation, a day that would every day be the first day of new creations." [7] Raymond Queneau, a former associate of Breton and a champion of Ionesco's work, was a member of the Collège de ’Pataphysique and a founder of Oulipo, two groups with which Ionesco was associated.[8]
[edit]References
1. ^ Some sources such as the Who's Who in Jewish History (Routledge, London, 1995) and 'Ionesco Eugene' article inEncyclopaedia Judaica state that Ionesco's mother was Jewish. In his now famous diary, Romanian playwright Mihail Sebastianrecorded that Ionesco told him his mother "had been Jewish, from Craiova." (Cf. Journal: 1935–1944, UK edition, 321.) Marie-France Ionesco, Eugène's daughter, details a more complex genealogy of her family. Marie-Therese Ipcar's father was Jean Ipcar, a Lutheran from France and her mother was Aneta Ioanid, a Romanian woman of Greek parentage and Greek-Orthodoxreligion. Jean's biological father was a Frenchman of Lutheran religion named Émile Marin. His mother, Anna, later married a man named Sebastien Ipcher, from whom Jean got his surname, a French-Catholic variation of "Ipcher" or "Ipchier". Rumors of Marie-Therese's Jewish origin, Marie-France writes, may have originated from the fact that her paternal grandmother's surname is disputed between the French Lebel or German-Jewish Lindenberg. Whether Eugène Ionesco's great-grandmother was Jewish or not, is, according to Marie-France, unknown and irrelevant, especially in regard to Eugène Ionesco's positive view of Jews. Cf. Ionesco, Marie-France, Portrait de l'écrivain dans le siècle: Eugène Ionesco, 1909-1994, Gallimard, Paris, 2004.
2. ^ Søren Olsen, Eugene Ionesco's life
Assimil is a French company, founded by Alphonse Chérel in 1929. It creates and publishes foreign language courses, which began with their first book Anglais Sans Peine ("English Without Toil"). Since then, the company has expanded into numerous other languages and continues to publish today.
Their method for teaching foreign languages is through the listening of records or tapes and the reading of a book with the text that you are listening to, one side native language, one side foreign language. This method is focused on learning whole sentences, for an organic learning of the grammar. It begins with a long passive phase of only reading and listening, and eventually adds active exercises. Most books contain around 100 lessons, with the active phase starting on Lesson 50. The word "Assimil" comes from assimilation.
The company publishes several different series:
"With Ease" series, which teach basic rules of grammar and a vocabulary of 2000-3000 words;
"Perfectionnement" series, which teaches more advanced idiosyncrasies and idioms of the target language;
Business series, which focuses on vocabulary related to international business;
Idioms series, which teaches common idioms;
"On the Road" series, which serves as a travel companion;
Slang series, for contemporary slang usage;
"For Kids" series, which is meant to introduce a language to 3-year olds.
Contents
  [hide] 
1 Languages
o 1.1 Arabic base
o 1.2 Dutch base
o 1.3 English base
o 1.4 French base
o 1.5 German base
o 1.6 Hungarian base
o 1.7 Italian base
o 1.8 Japanese base
o 1.9 Polish base
o 1.10 Portuguese base
o 1.11 Russian base
o 1.12 Spanish base
o 1.13 Turkish base
2 Influences
3 References
[edit]Languages
[edit]Arabic base

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